What to Consider When Using Starter Grass Fertilizer

Seeding a new yard requires more than hard work along with some grass seed. Applying a starter grass fertilizer to the soil before spreading the seed gives the plants a boost by helping with root institution. Starter grass fertilizer is high in potassium to gain the main system of the germinated seed. This helps set the grass before the significant green growth happens.

Fertilizer Components

Starter grass fertilizer includes nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The tag will show the substances as N-P-K along with the ratio identifying how much of each is in the mixture. Phosphorus is necessary for grass root development and represented as the highest amount in the ratio. Nitrogen promotes green growth and is not required in high amounts until after germination and root development. Potassium can also be low in starter fertilizer and never required in high amounts until the grass begins growing and spreading.

Application Period

Starter fertilizer is effective when applied before seeding so that the active ingredients are available during turf establishment. Insert the fertilizer to the soil before planting by spreading it over the soil and working it in with a shovel or rake into a depth of 2 to 4 inches. Avoid tilling the fertilizer into the soil to stop it from becoming too heavy to get the roots to obtain the nutrients.

Application Rate

The University of California recommends an application rate of 20 pounds of a 5-10-5 starter fertilizer for every 1,000 square-feet of yard or 10 pounds of a 10-20-10 starter fertilizer. Avoid using a starter fertilizer that contains more than 1 pound of nitrogen for every 1,000 square-foot of yard to stop issues with germination. A 5-10-5 starter fertilizer applied at a rate of 20 pounds contains the maximum 1 pound of nitrogen.


Buy a house soil test kit to help determine the starter fertilizer ratio that best fits the needs of your dirt. The test results will indicate if there are some mineral deficiencies that can be fixed before planting grass seed. Avoid applying starter fertilizer to add nutrients to the soil before completing a soil test, in order to prevent issues with seed germination and growth.

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The Best Grass Seed to begin a Yard

With the ideal soil preparation, starting a lawn in a bright, open area that receives full sun can be as simple as binder some grass seed and watering it frequently. In case you’ve got a great deal of sun, live in an area with ample rain and imprisoned on your yard infrequently, maintaining the grass healthy is probably no problem. Many homeowners, nevertheless, struggle to seed and grow a lawn in a yard that’s shady, dry or sees a lot of foot traffic. In these scenarios, it’s important to plant the right type of seed or seed blend. There are lots of options for homeowners who have to seed a problem area within U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 and 9. The best grass seed for you can handle the unique conditions found in your yard.


Since most grasses adore sun, it can be difficult to grow seed in nesting areas of the yard. Fine fescue (Festuca) is one of the few shade-loving bud varieties available. These grasses are often utilized in shade-grass blends because they can thrive in very shady locations. Fescues will tolerate warm slopes as well as cold winters, blend well with other grasses and require little in the way of watering or fertilizing. Some specific fescue varieties to search for are creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra), chewing fescue (Festuca rubra commutate) and sheep fescue (Festuca ovina). Other shade-tolerant bud varieties include rough-stalked bluegrass (Poa trivialis), carpet grass (Axonopus affinis), centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiuroides), seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) and bahia grass (paspalum notatum).

High Traffic Areas

Certain grass varieties are somewhat delicate and don’t succeed in high traffic locations. Lawns that often see children, dogs or sporting actions have to be seeded with grass that may take some abuse and still thrive. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) both hold up in high traffic locations. A possible disadvantage of ryegrass is that its clumping growth pattern prevents it from spreading as readily as Bermuda grass. This does, however, make ryegrass a lot easier to keep out of flower beds and stone walkways. Another high traffic option is turf-type tall fescue (Festuca elatior). Fescues typically do badly in high traffic areas, but tall fescue is the exception to this rule. Tall fescue does require dense seeding, however, because it also rises in a clumping pattern.

Drought-Prone Regions

If you live in a drought-prone place, then it’s necessary to plant drought-tolerant grass seeds. Otherwise, your lawn is going to be a big brown bare spot each summer once the rain does not come. Although all grasses may battle during prolonged dry periods, planting drought-resistant seed will possess your yard looking green and lush more than lawns with greater water requirements. Turf-type tall fescue, bahia grass, Bermuda grass and seashore paspalum all work well in drought-prone places. Other drought-tolerant varieties include zoysia grass (Zoysia), buffalo grass (Bouteloua dactyloides) and blue grama grass (Bouteloua gracilis).

Low Maintenance

Some people today live for yard work. They discover peace and comfort whilst tending the garden and mowing the lawn. If you’re none of these people, select a very low maintenance grass seed which lets you enjoy a lush, green yard without devoting all of your free time to its maintenance. Most fescue varieties, such as tall fescue, buffalo grass, bahia grass, zoysia and centipede grass are very low maintenance. Another easy-care alternative is St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum). Unfortunately, St. Augustine grass has to be started with plugs or sod, because the plant does not seed reliably and it’s very difficult to locate St. Augustine in seed form.

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Should You Prune a Grape Arbor?

Your grape arbor offers shade in the summer together with tasty fruit that you get the satisfaction of growing yourself. Grapevines are rather hardy, but they grow best when pruned once a year, usually in late winter to early spring. Grapes grow on new growth, so pruning helps the plant grow wholesome fruit.

First Year

Pruning during the first year of the grapevine’s life differs than following decades. Plant a grapevine one each side of the arbor for the best results — it’s easier to train two plants up and above the arbor than to depend on one plant to protect the entire construction from top to bottom on both sides. When you plant them in the spring, cut back the stems so that just one — the largest one — comes up in the ground. This will develop into the plant’s back. Cut off most of the offshoots in the back, leaving just three close the top of the trunk, removing the lower ones. This helps guide the plant up so you can train it above the arbor.

Other Years

It takes around three years for many grapevines to develop into older, but also you can start regular pruning in the plant’s second winter. Grapes develop just on new canes, but you want some old development up and above the arbor to assist the plant keep its shape for several years. Allow a couple of chief canes to remain over the arbor, but trim canes that sprout from the key ones down to three or two buds each winter. Together with arbors, you desire the canes on the very best to distribute to the sides and curtain each season, so leave buds that point out rather than up or parallel to the main canes.

Overgrown Vines

In case your grape arbor is no longer producing fruit or looks overgrown, don’t attempt to fix the issue in one pruning. Cut up to old timber — canes that are 3 years old or old — off the vine, leaving one main cane over the top of the arbor. Trim all canes but that one off the primary trunk. The back should sprout new canes through the following growing season. Choose the strongest of those canes and prune off the remainder between January and March, like any piece of the back that goes past the newest cane. Permit this new grin to function as the back, leaving three limbs to train the arbor to reinvigorate the plant.


Several tools assist you prune your grapevine, including standard pruning shears and a handsaw for bigger canes. Cut the shoots off just above the junction where they attach to the cane, leaving an inch or so of the pruned cane to encourage growth during the following season. Although pruning before the end of March is ideal, you can prune into April. This may lead to excess sap leaking out of their cuts, which may stunt the growth of new shoots marginally for that season. However, it’s unlikely to destroy the plant. To help the plants develop the arbor, use garden twine or pipe cleaners to loosely attach the vines into the arbor every 12 inches.

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How to Cure Orange Tree Diseases

The lush scent of the orange flowers may call to obey tropical lands, but orange trees (Citrus spp.) Are not merely for Florida and the south of Spain. Many orange tree cultivars prosper in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9 through 11. Like other citrus trees, orange trees may catch many different fungal, viral, mycoplasma and nematode diseases and while some might be treated, others don’t have any cures. The best defense against orange tree diseases could possibly be good citrus management practices all year round.

Diagnose fungal diseases such as anthracnose and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) identifying velvety mats of sporulating tissues which induce invading to die back and fruit to come up with ridges and drop. Spray the tree thoroughly with copper and benzimidazole fungicides according to label instructions. Reapply if required. Lower your orange tree’s susceptibility to fungal disease by protecting the tree from mechanical injuries and pruning to enhance air movement.

Treat citrus plant parasitic-nematode diseases by combining a broad-spectrum insecticide/nematicide featuring Oxamyl into the irrigation water provided to the tree. Use according to label instructions, but never apply over the maximum recommended, about 4 quarts per acre per month.

Diagnose psorosis by noting that a gradual decrease caused by flaking of the bark which develops into an infection. Treat it by scraping away the infected bark area with a sharp, sterilized knife and allowing the wound to callus over. Both psorosis and nematode diseases are transmitted by grafts and both can be avoided by buying certified disease-free citrus plants for your own orchard.

Apply a fungicide wash featuring copper sulfate to treat fungus- and mold-based diseases. Mix the fungicide with water in accordance with the label instructions and washing the tree twice per year, in fall and spring. Check your irrigation and drainage system to stop over-watering which may be a element in fungal infections. Orange trees require moist but well-drained dirt to thrive.

Treat black rot, also called Alternaria rot, by removing affected fruit from the site. This fungus grows on dead citrus tissue during rainy weather causing fruit drop and rotten, dark spots on the fruit. Not all the fruit will be affected and you are able to eat those oranges which aren’t. Avoid the disease in the future by applying good cultural practices including good tree maintenance and irrigation. It is very important to prevent all wounds or other harm to fruit that provides the fungus a means to enter the tree.

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Varieties of Thornless Blackberry Plants

If the thought of fighting thorny canes is the one thing between you and a summerlong source of homegrown blackberries, you’re in luck. Thornless blackberries first appeared with the 1911 introduction of Californian Walter Cory’s “Cory Thornless.” Now, multiple thornless cultivars supply months of gleaming, ebony fruit for preserves, baked goodies and eating straight away from the cane. Blackberries flourish in deep, mildly acidic, well-drained sandy loam. Cultivars demanding 200 to 800 hours of temperatures between 32 and 45 degrees Fahrenheit function nicely in Mediterranean climates.

Growth Habits

Thornless blackberries develop as erect, semi-erect or trailing plants. Of the three, only semi-erect plants require a trellis or other support. Erect thornless blackberries create canes in their roots and crowns; trailing and semi-erect cultivar canes sprout from the plants’ crowns. Called primocanes within their initial year and floricanes when they flower in their moment, the canes die back after creating berries.

High-Sugar Cultivars

“Navaho” (R. “Navaho”) brings high praise for its exceptionally sweet, late-June-to-August berries. A solitary, 4- to 5-foot “Navaho” plant bears from 8 to 10 quarts of 1-inch blue-black berries. The fruit 11.7 percent glucose content is the greatest among all University of Arkansas blackberry cultivars. Erect, heat-tolerant “Navaho” grows in full sun in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 6 through 10. Apache” (R. “Apache”) produces hefty, gleaming-black berries on 5, 5- to 8-foot canes. Averaging 10.7 percent sugar solids, the fruit ripens over five weeks starting at mid-June, after its whitened, early-summer flowers open against medium-green, compound foliage. Up to 8-feet broad, “Apache” requires a sunny spot with room to spread. It’s hardy to USDA zones 5 through 9.

Medium-Sweet Cultivars

“Arapaho” (Rubus “Arapaho”), an erect thornless blackberry, produces white spring flowers and deep-green foliage. Its 8 to 10 quarts of 1- to 2-inch berries, desired because of their extremely tiny seeds, are ready for harvesting in ancient to mid-June. Spreading from 3 to 5 feet using canes of variable heights, self-pollinating “Arapaho” does well in partial to full sun. Its strawberries average 9.6 percent glucose content, marginally higher than the bigger, 9.5-percent fruit in “Natchez” (R. “Natchez”), another ancient blackberry. Introduced in 2007, semi-erect “Natchez” stands 4- to 5-feet benefits and high from trellis support. The white-flowering tree enjoys full sun, but does best in cool-summer climates in USDA zones 6 through 8.

Pruning Erect Thornless Blackberries

Properly pruning erect thornless cultivars like “Arapaho,” “Apache” and “Navaho” encourages them to ship lateral branches. Trim each year’s primocanes back to 3 1/2 feet in late summer or early fall. The cut canes become thicker as laterals emerge from their lower divisions, so that they support the growing harvest without aid. Cutting the laterals back to 1 foot in late winter or before they begin flowering in early spring promotes bigger blackberries.

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The way to Adjust a Lazy Susan Cabinet Pole

A lazy Susan is a rotating closet add for corner cabinets in a kitchen. The rotating shelves of a lazy Susan function nicely in this type of cabinet because the cabinet can be rather expansive with a small door opening, which makes it difficult to reach the recesses. A lazy Susan is made up of a few shelves that rotate around a center pole, which, if not correctly aligned, can prevent the doors from closing or the shelves from smoothly rotating. It is possible to correct a lazy Susan closet rod in a couple of minutes with a few hand tools.

Remove the items in the lazy Susan shelves. Remove the screws holding the cabinet door onto the cabinet frame using a screwdriver, and set aside the doorway.

Loosen the mounting screws holding each shelf into the rod using a screwdriver. Slide down the shelves the rod and permit them to rest on the ground of the cabinet.

Loosen the screw on the collar in the center of the rod, and slide the upper part of the rod down to the lower part. Lift each shelf above the end of the rod, and pull them out of the cabinet.

Expand the upper part of the rod until it aligns with the upper pivot inside the cabinet, and tighten the collar screw.

Hold a level against the face of the rod to confirm the rod for plumb. If the rod is not plumb, loosen and remove the screws that secure the upper pivot to the peak of the cabinet. Adjust the rod until it is plumb in every direction. Rotate the upper pivot 45 degrees on the rod and mark hole positions for the mounting screws.

Loosen the collar screw, lower the upper part of rod, and eliminate both the rod and the upper pivot from the cabinet.

Drill a 1/8-inch pilot hole through each of the marked hole locations. Insert the upper dot and attach it into the cabinet using the mounting screws through the pilot holes.

Reinsert the closet rod, and extend the upper pole section to meet the upper pivot. Tighten the collar screw and check for plumb.

Lower the upper rod again, then replace the shelves above the rod. Expand the upper rod to the pivot, tighten the collar screw, then reposition the shelves and tighten the shelf screws.

Analyze the lazy Susan to make sure it correctly rotates within the cabinet. Replace the cabinet door, then replace the contents of the lazy Susan shelves.

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Trellises As Privacy Fences

Create an intimate garden area using a trellis draped in flowers or even fruit and vegetables if you would like to bring an edible component to your privacy trellis. The trellis can be a timeless lattice weave or be made out of wire, wood or metal material. When creating solitude, a trellis draped in plants is a fun and beautiful accession.


A trellis is a construction, traditionally made from wood or metal, designed to provide support for plants. Trellises can be either free standing or secured against a wall. Attaching a trellis to a wall is a means to grow growing plants against the side of a building or other permanent construction. When developing a privacy fence to enclose a garden area or develop a visual barrier, a freestanding trellis is the way to go.

Free-Standing Trellis

Free-standing trellises have to be strong and well secured in order to support heavy plant substances and defy the wind. When constructing a trellis as a privacy fence, construct it as you would any fence using good fence posts set on concrete pads. Between the fence posts, wood lattice or a metal framework creates the trellis impact and provides an ideal structure for growing plants.

Selecting Climbers

When choosing climbing vines for a privacy fence trellis, the first aspect to think about is deciduous or evergreen. Deciduous vines lose their leaves in the fall and remain leafless during the winter. This works if the privacy fence encloses places only used throughout the growing season. Evergreen climbing vines maintain their leaves year, developing a private enclosure in most seasons. Clematis includes woody evergreen and deciduous flowering climbing vines, hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 11, depending of this variety. Increasing roses ( Rosa spp.) Make good additions. Based on the variety, roses are hardy in USDA zones 3 through 10.

Edible Privacy

It is possible to create a privacy fence on a trellis using edibles by planting climbing vegetable and fruit plants. Yearly vegetables will die back in the end of this growing season, but they grow rapidly and leaf out rapidly creating solitude early in the growing season. Vegetable plants like strawberries, beans, peas, cucumbers and small melons or squash require a support or they will trail all over the garden. Plant these delicious crops at the base of your privacy fence, and harvest fresh veggies all summertime.

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How to Install a Freestanding Bathroom Sink

A freestanding bathroom sink, often referred to as a pedestal sink, which is a standalone unit that is ideal for half-baths or smaller bathrooms in which a vanity could be too large. With a freestanding bathroom sink, the plumbing that is normally hidden under the vanity is exposed, so chrome pipes are set up in place of PVC. It’s possible to put in a freestanding bathroom sink with the help of an assistant in a single day using some common plumbing gear.

Measure from the floor to the mounting brackets of this freestanding sink. Locate the stud behind the wall on every side of this roughed-in plumbing in the bathroom wall using a fireplace, and mark the studs. Then cut a 10-inch-tall part of masonry behind the sink between the centres of the joists centered vertically at the height of the mounting brackets with a utility knife.

Measure the distance between the studs and then cut a part of two-by-eight lumber in that distance using a circular saw. Insert the part of board and attach it to the studs using 3-inch wood screws embedded diagonally throughout the board and in the studs using a power drill.

Measure and cut a piece of 1/2-inch drywall to cover the installed brace and encompassing hole in the wall, and then attach the drywall with drywall screws. Fill the joints with joint compound, and employ drywall tape to the joints using a 3-inch putty knife. Apply additional joint compound over the tape and permit the compound to dry for 24 hours. Then sand the joint compound and feather a second layer of compound over the first using a 10-inch drywall knife. Allow the second layer of compound to dry, then sand, texture and paint the stain to match the surrounding wall.

Place the pedestal sink’s wall-mounting bracket over the wall and then brace in the height you decided earlier, and adjust the angle using a torpedo level. Fasten the bracket to the braced wall section using the bracket’s mounting screws.

Measure the distance horizontally from the mounting bracket on the back of the sink to the middle of this drain. Then align a chrome P-trap using the drain line from the wall so that the vertical coupling of this P-trap is centered at the drain’s distance from the wall. Mark the point on the drain point in which the PVC shoulder meets the elbow and then cut the PVC drain line at that stage using a hacksaw.

Turn off the water main to the house, and turn to a faucet elsewhere in the building to ease pressure. Then cut off the two copper supply lines in 2 inches from the wall using a tube cutter. Slide the wall flange, compression coupler and ferrule of a chrome compression shutoff valve over one of the pipes, then fit the end of the valve onto the pipe. Pull the ferrule to fulfill the nipple, then tighten the coupler to the nipple using an adjustable wrench. Push the flange from the wall to cover the rough-in in the drywall. Repeat the process using the next shutoff valve. Turn the water main and check the valves for leaks.

Remove the coupler nut and washers from a pop-up kit. Apply a bead of plumber’s putty around the drain flange, then set the drain into the sink. Press down to the flange to bench the flange to the drain hole, then place the seams onto the drain nipple at the order they were eliminated, and thread the coupler nut onto the nipple. Tighten using a large pair of slip-joint pliers. Wipe away any extra plumber’s putty.

Remove the mounting nuts from the base of the faucet, and place the base of the faucet onto the back of the sink via the mounting holes. Attach the mounting nuts to the nipples on the bottoms of their hot and cold inlets, and hand-tighten the nuts. Then adjust the position of the faucet and tighten the nuts using slip-joint pliers.

Put the sink onto the pedestal base. Attach the drain tailpiece to the drain nipple throughout the pedestal base, and tighten the joint using slip-joint pliers. Then assess the distance from the floor to the base of the P-trap already set up on the drain line. Install the lower half of this P-trap to the tailpiece from the pedestal sink in this height, and fasten the coupler using the slip-joint pliers.

Slide the end of this pop-up drain pole through the hole at the middle of the back of the sink, and link the pole to the extension by tightening the set screw onto the extension bracket. Then connect the extension to the lift pole using the slide spring. Examine the operation of this pop-up arm along with the stopper in the sink, and adjust the lift pole as needed to ensure proper operation.

Slide the sink and pedestal into position from the wall. Lift the sink slightly to fasten the mounting bracket on the back of the sink to the wall bracket. Combine the two halves of this P-trap and tighten the coupler using the slip-joint pliers.

Mount any floor bolts as required from the base of the pedestal to the floor, by predrilling holes and driving the lag bolts using the adjustable wrench. If no mounts are required, caulk around the base with silicone tub and tile caulk.

Wrap thread seal tape around the nipples of every water inlet valve 2 to 3 times. Measure the distance from the nipple to the hot water supply valve to the hot water inlet on the faucet. Cut a slice of chromed supply tube 1 inch longer than this distance. Add a coupler and ferrule to one end, then connect that end to the distribution valve using an adjustable wrench. Gently bend the tube so that it aligns with the base of the faucet inlet, then add a faucet coupler and ferrule to the end of the tube and then connect it to the faucet nipple. Repeat to your cold water feed.

Turn the two water supply inlets, then turn on the faucet and analyze the operation of this inlets, sink and drain lines.

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The way to Screen Coasters to a Wall

Wall art doesn’t have to be a painting or photograph in a decorative frame. If you can put something on the wall, then you may use it as wall art, so long as you arrange it attractively. Collections of coasters may produce a quirky yet creative display; it is an unexpected material which can stick out and demand attention in a room.


If you haven’t already started, collect coasters to put in your wall. You can purchase coasters in sets, get used ones from websites which auction various collectibles or search for them in garage sales and thrift shops. Among the most rewarding ways to strengthen your coasters is by gathering them from bars and restaurants which you regular or from areas you visit in your travels.


Determine which wall you need to use for your lock screen. An ideal place can most likely be found on your game room, guy cave or near your wet bar. You can also produce a whimsical display by placing the coasters above a fireplace mantle or sofa. Do not be afraid to be playful with them; use them at the kitchen as a edge or plaster the door to your den.

Stick Them

It is possible to mount cardboard, some other lightweight material directly to the wall. Decide how you want to arrange them first; measure the space you want to put them and create a scale diagram on chart paper with each square representing 1 inch. Gauge the coasters and sketch the arrangement to scale back on the diagram. When you’re happy with a plan, mount the coasters directly to the wall according to your plan. Use a ruler to be certain you’re spacing out them correctly and use a level to be certain they’re straight. Mount them with a removable wall mount adhesive so your walls wo not be damaged if you want to take them down.

Frame Them

If you prize your collection, instead of mounting them directly to the wall, then you would be better off placing the coasters in frames to protect them from dust and grime. You can get little, square frames and then put one coaster in every frame. Use a neutral shade background paper in all of the frames to unify the collection, then center a coaster in every frame. Alternately, get large frames and then arrange clusters of coasters at the frames. Hang the frames on the wall within an attractive arrangement.

Shelve Them

Get narrow image shelves used to display lines of family photographs on walls and in stairwells. These shelves will even hold your coasters for you. This is the optimal solution if you have coasters made of ceramic, wood, stone or metal. Hang the shelves in which you want to make the display. If you’re placing one shelf above another, measure the coasters to see how far apart you want the shelves spaced. As soon as you have the shelves mounted, line up the coasters on them. Secure the coasters with museum putty.

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