How to Cure Orange Tree Diseases

The lush scent of the orange flowers may call to obey tropical lands, but orange trees (Citrus spp.) Are not merely for Florida and the south of Spain. Many orange tree cultivars prosper in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9 through 11. Like other citrus trees, orange trees may catch many different fungal, viral, mycoplasma and nematode diseases and while some might be treated, others don’t have any cures. The best defense against orange tree diseases could possibly be good citrus management practices all year round.

Diagnose fungal diseases such as anthracnose and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) identifying velvety mats of sporulating tissues which induce invading to die back and fruit to come up with ridges and drop. Spray the tree thoroughly with copper and benzimidazole fungicides according to label instructions. Reapply if required. Lower your orange tree’s susceptibility to fungal disease by protecting the tree from mechanical injuries and pruning to enhance air movement.

Treat citrus plant parasitic-nematode diseases by combining a broad-spectrum insecticide/nematicide featuring Oxamyl into the irrigation water provided to the tree. Use according to label instructions, but never apply over the maximum recommended, about 4 quarts per acre per month.

Diagnose psorosis by noting that a gradual decrease caused by flaking of the bark which develops into an infection. Treat it by scraping away the infected bark area with a sharp, sterilized knife and allowing the wound to callus over. Both psorosis and nematode diseases are transmitted by grafts and both can be avoided by buying certified disease-free citrus plants for your own orchard.

Apply a fungicide wash featuring copper sulfate to treat fungus- and mold-based diseases. Mix the fungicide with water in accordance with the label instructions and washing the tree twice per year, in fall and spring. Check your irrigation and drainage system to stop over-watering which may be a element in fungal infections. Orange trees require moist but well-drained dirt to thrive.

Treat black rot, also called Alternaria rot, by removing affected fruit from the site. This fungus grows on dead citrus tissue during rainy weather causing fruit drop and rotten, dark spots on the fruit. Not all the fruit will be affected and you are able to eat those oranges which aren’t. Avoid the disease in the future by applying good cultural practices including good tree maintenance and irrigation. It is very important to prevent all wounds or other harm to fruit that provides the fungus a means to enter the tree.

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The way to Screen Coasters to a Wall

Wall art doesn’t have to be a painting or photograph in a decorative frame. If you can put something on the wall, then you may use it as wall art, so long as you arrange it attractively. Collections of coasters may produce a quirky yet creative display; it is an unexpected material which can stick out and demand attention in a room.


If you haven’t already started, collect coasters to put in your wall. You can purchase coasters in sets, get used ones from websites which auction various collectibles or search for them in garage sales and thrift shops. Among the most rewarding ways to strengthen your coasters is by gathering them from bars and restaurants which you regular or from areas you visit in your travels.


Determine which wall you need to use for your lock screen. An ideal place can most likely be found on your game room, guy cave or near your wet bar. You can also produce a whimsical display by placing the coasters above a fireplace mantle or sofa. Do not be afraid to be playful with them; use them at the kitchen as a edge or plaster the door to your den.

Stick Them

It is possible to mount cardboard, some other lightweight material directly to the wall. Decide how you want to arrange them first; measure the space you want to put them and create a scale diagram on chart paper with each square representing 1 inch. Gauge the coasters and sketch the arrangement to scale back on the diagram. When you’re happy with a plan, mount the coasters directly to the wall according to your plan. Use a ruler to be certain you’re spacing out them correctly and use a level to be certain they’re straight. Mount them with a removable wall mount adhesive so your walls wo not be damaged if you want to take them down.

Frame Them

If you prize your collection, instead of mounting them directly to the wall, then you would be better off placing the coasters in frames to protect them from dust and grime. You can get little, square frames and then put one coaster in every frame. Use a neutral shade background paper in all of the frames to unify the collection, then center a coaster in every frame. Alternately, get large frames and then arrange clusters of coasters at the frames. Hang the frames on the wall within an attractive arrangement.

Shelve Them

Get narrow image shelves used to display lines of family photographs on walls and in stairwells. These shelves will even hold your coasters for you. This is the optimal solution if you have coasters made of ceramic, wood, stone or metal. Hang the shelves in which you want to make the display. If you’re placing one shelf above another, measure the coasters to see how far apart you want the shelves spaced. As soon as you have the shelves mounted, line up the coasters on them. Secure the coasters with museum putty.

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The way to Seam the Edge of a Sheer Curtain

The border finish on a sheer curtain is where a professional finish is most evident. Mastering a fantastic edge finish will hallmark you as an innovative home-decor seamstress and elevate your fabrications to the coveted status of custom-made over homemade — even without a professional blind-hemming machine.

Hand Sew

Fold the edge of the curtain over 1 inch, wrong sides together, and press the fold. Fold the border again 1 inch and pin the hem in place. Don’t press the second fold.

Take a little pick-stitch near the peak of the curtain on the next fold of the hem within an anchor stitch.

Slide the needle under the upper layer of fabric of the second fold and run the needle perpendicular to the next fold toward the hem for 1/2 inch. Exit the fold and pull up the thread.

Take a small stitch over the folded hem and into the curtain. Pick as several stitches as you can. Insert the needle under the upper layer of the hem and the next fold for 1/2 inch. Exit the fold and pull up the thread. Take another little stitch into the curtain and over the folded hem. Continue along the folded edge to the bottom of the hem. Back-tack to affix the thread, and cut off the surplus.

Press the finished hem and allow it to cool before moving the curtain.


Fold the edge of the curtain over 1 inch, wrong sides together, and press the fold. Again fold the border 1 inch, and pin the hem in place. Press this second fold.

Put 1/4-inch-wide fusible tape involving the curtain face and the second fold. Put a pressing cloth over the fold and fuse based on the manufacturer’s directions. Don’t slide the iron over the fabric as it is fusing, since this leads to ripples in the hem. Lift and transfer the iron, then reset it to the new department to fuse.

Let the curtain thoroughly cool before moving it.

Machine Sew

Fold the edge of the curtain over, wrong sides together, 1 inch and press the fold. Fold the border again 1 inch, then pin the hem in place. Press this second fold.

Position the curtain below the foot of the sewing machine, with the right side of the fabric on the surface, and the hem against the feed dogs. Keep the fabric educated as it goes through the sewing path. Maintaining it taut and sewing using the hem on the underside lowers the take-up of this machine sewing.

Sew near the next fold and press on the finished hem. Let it cool before moving the curtain.

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How to Shorten a Window Shade

Roller window shades are relatively easy to shorten. Unlike blinds that involve strings and pulleys, window shades are shortened by cutting the fabric where it attaches at the elbow. When the shade is too long, you can shorten it to pull down to the window sill instead of beyond the sill. Some homeowners may choose the expression of shades that only cover the top half of a window when completely pulled down. Regardless of the reason, the job can be carried out with basic resources by even beginner DIYers.

Pull down the colour and discharge it lightly to place the ant-reverse lock to the roller. Lift the roller on top of the shade out of the brackets and lay the shade flat on a table.

Expand the roller on the shade by palm to unroll the shade completely and expose the tape or staples that fasten the top end of the shade to the roller. Note the way the shade rolls on the roller, such as over the top border or in the underside. After the colour is cut it must be reattached in the roller in the same manner.

Detach the top border of the shade in the wooden roller by pulling the staple fasteners with a desk staple puller. To get a metal or vinyl roller, then lightly cut across the pieces of tape in which these attach the border of the shade on the roller. Put the roller apart.

Measure down from one of the roller brackets on the window frame and notice the dimension that you would like the shade. Add 2 inches to allow enough shade for rolling the top end on the roller. Note the dimension.

Measure from the bottom cord or rib around the colour and mark every edge of the colour in your own measurement. Fold the top part of the shade in your marks and press on the fold to make a seam as a cutting guide.

Cut across the shade from side to side in the folded seam with scissors. Discard the top piece that is cut off.

Check with the direction the shade was rolled onto the roller and place the cut edge of the shade in the top border or underside of the roller, as necessary.

Set up a desk stapler using 1/8-inch staples. Flip the grab on the inner end of the stapler and swivel the foundation away in the stapler’s head. Attach the border of the shade to a wooden roller with fundamentals at 4-inch periods from end to end. To get a metal or vinyl roller, then attach the border of the shade with 2-inch-long strips of 1/2-inch masking tape in 4-inch intervals.

Roll the roller many inches onto the colour. Reset the roller in the brackets at all sides of the window. Pull down lightly on the bottom of the shade to publish the reverse-lock to collect or pull down the shade.

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Easy Install Fences

Fence installation can be tough and labor-intensive, but fence producers have developed numerous solutions which make installing a fence a job that any homeowner can accomplish. A number of these easy-install designs simplify the setup process by doing away with all of the frills and concentrating entirely on the fence’s function, while others try to be as elegant as a custom-built fence.

Vinyl Fence

Because vinyl fence systems are designed with prefabricated parts, their setup requires less labor and time than comparable wooden fences in which the parts are measured, cut and assembled onsite. In a typical vinyl fence installation, the contractor installs the fence posts and then secures a horizontal rail in the base of the poles. Tongue-and-groove pickets are subsequently inserted into the bottom rail between the poles; when all of the pickets are set up, the contractor installs the top rail, that secures the pickets and completes the fence panel.

Bamboo Roll Fence

Rolled bamboo fencing consists of fence panels made from bamboo canes which are attached to one another with strings; the bamboo is rolled up for transport and unrolled through setup. Like most fence installations, the setup of the type of fence begins with the setting of vertical poles and the installation of flat rails between the poles. The contractor then unrolls the bamboo, pushing it against the flat rails; screws spaced 12 inches apart secure the bamboo into the top and bottom rails.

Deer Fence

Simple containment fences are only functional, serving only to keep animals inside a boundary or to prevent unwanted animals from entering. The fencing material is a plastic mesh that arrives from the manufacturer in rolls; through setup, the mesh is unrolled and attached using zip ties to steel poles which have been driven into the ground. The bottom of the fence can also be secured into the ground with stakes at regular intervals in order that animals are unable to push beneath the fence.

Metal Fence

Decorative metal fences made of iron, iron or other metal are accessible as prefabricated fence panels, making their setup less complex than that of fences that are fabricated on-site. Installation of these fences consists only of setting posts and then attaching the panels to the poles. Many metal fence systems feature panels and posts which are pre-drilled using holes for connecting the parts to one another, that eliminates the need for measuring and drilling during setup.

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Lighting for Over the Stove

Kitchen lighting may wear numerous hats, while it’s needed as general lighting, task lighting or accent lights. But form must follow function; particularly in regards to lighting places such as cookers, sinks and kitchen islands, where jobs such as cleaning, food preparation and cleaning require plenty of decent lighting. Although many range hoods include some kind of lighting, these lights often fall short of supplying adequate task light. Therefore, an additional light source could be needed when using the cooker.

Recessed Lights

1 solution for decent stove lighting would be to install a recessed downlight above or near the stove. Recessed lights may also be set up in a soffit, if one exists within the cooker. This type of lighting has three parts: the housing, which holds the electrical wiring and socket for the bulb, the trim, which is the only visible component and covers the edges of the hole where the housing sits, and the arc, which must be built to fit and work with the housing. When thinking of a lighting type, halogen and compact fluorescent are more energy efficient than incandescent and are both excellent choices for task lighting.

LED Lights

LED lights have become one of the top choices for home accent and task lighting. A narrow, aluminum strip of LED lights can easily be set up with screws or magnets above the cooker. The lights may be permanently connected to a 120V AC power line or could be plugged into a nearby wall socket. Individual, circular under-cabinet LED lights may also be set up over the cooker. Among the benefits of an LED lighting solution is the low cost. The lights are very long lasting and highly energy efficient, which makes them a green lighting alternative. Additionally, LEDs have hardly any heat output. LED lights make amazing job lights, as a well-designed LED lighting could be directed exactly where it is necessary.

Hanging Pendants

Many modern homes have already stoves built into kitchen islands. This kind of kitchen design allows for more decorative lighting options over the cooker such as hanging pendants. Low hanging pendant lights may provide consistent task lighting when positioned directly over the cooktop surface in addition to providing overall lighting for the whole room. But pendant lights that hang over a kitchen island are usually not the sole light source for the space. Recessed lights or other types of ceiling fixtures usually accompany kitchen island pendants.

Track Lighting

Another lighting solution for a poorly-lit cooker shirt is track lighting. A strip of track lights strategically installed together a portion of the kitchen provides a foundation where personal lighting fixtures could be positioned to shine light directly where you want it. Besides adjustable ceiling fixtures, hanging pendants may also be included in a track lighting set-up. Whether your cooker is located from the wall or built into a kitchen island, a track lighting system can provide the job lighting you will need for cooking. This handy versatility makes track lighting an superb option for general, task and accent lighting in the kitchen.

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DIY Decorative Bed Crown

A decorative bed overhead, also called a “wall teester,” adds an elegant touch to a nursery crib, daybed or conventional bed. While store-bought bed shingles can be quite pricey, making one yourself by a decorative shelf is less expensive. Look for ornate, semicircular shelves or a rectangular shelf with ornate detailing underneath. The shelf has to have a hollow pocket supporting the ornamental embellishment so you have a place to attach the cloth canopy.

Hold up the shelf to the wall and then mark the spot for each hanging screw with a pencil. Check your marks with a level to guarantee the shelf will hang straight.

Put in the drywall screw anchors. Insert the screws, letting them stick out far enough to hang the shelf on.

Fold the queen-size sheet in half lengthwise. Cut the sheet in half along the fold. Fold a 1-inch seam together each cut side of this two panels, and pin in place. Press the folded seam open and remove the pins.

Together with the pressed seam open, add the 3/4-inch hem tape into the crease. Fold the cloth back over the surface and press again to seal the hem.

Fold the cloth near the top of each panel, going back and forth between each fold to create accordion-style pleats. Use the iron to press the cloth after each fold.

Put a small piece of 1/2-inch hem tape measuring 2 inches long inside each pleat at the top of each cloth panel. Press with the iron to strengthen each pleat.

Cut the self-adhesive hook-and-loop tape into many little 2-inch patches. Adhere one aspect of the tape patches to the interior hollow region of the shelf. Adhere another side of this tape patches to the top of each cloth panel. Reinforce the patches with fabric glue if desired. Attach the fabric panels to the underside of the shelf, one on each side. Drape the cloth panels over each side of the headboard or bedposts.

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The way to Use SUPERThrive on Trees

SuperThrive claims to enhance plant growth and vigor. This concentrated, nontoxic liquid multivitamin solution for trees and garden plants isn’t a standard pesticide, so it can be used in addition to your usual fertilizer. SuperThrive was designed in 1939 and has sold continuously since then. For trees, it is advertised as a treatment for transplant shock when trees have been moved to a different place and also a tree health tonic.

Mix SuperThrive focus at a rate of 1 tsp of concentrate per gallon of water for transplanting bare-root trees. Set the tree in the planting hole and fill the hole using the SuperThrive solution. Soak the roots for 15 minutes or until the water stops bubbling, whichever comes last, then fill in the planting hole with soil. Water well with more SuperThrive solution. Do not water again for 24 hours. If your tree includes a wrapped root ball, then go to Step 2.

Set the wrapped root ball of the tree into a solution of 6 teaspoons SuperThrive to 5 gallons of water in a bucket until the ball is well nourished. Move the moist root ball into the planting hole. Remove wrapping if necessary and fill in the hole with soil. Water well with more SuperThrive solution. Do not water again for 24 hours. If yours is an already-established tree, go to Step 3.

Feed established trees using SuperThrive weekly to monthly. Feed trees throughout the origins using a SuperThrive solution made up of 1 teaspoon of SuperThrive per gallon of water. Mix enough solution to guarantee the soil around the tree is well-watered. Use the solution the exact same day you mix it. Supplement groundwater feeding using foliar feeding, which can be feeding trees during their leaves. For foliar feeding, mixture SuperThrive at a rate of 3 ounces per 100 gallons of water. Using a garden sprayer, spray the solution on the tops and undersides of the leaves, wetting them thoroughly.

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Vegetable Gardening Companion Planting List and Gardening Tips

Generations of gardeners passed down observations regarding plants that flourish with specific neighbors. These blossom and vegetable companions seem to match each other in ways that benefit both or one. Some plants provide shade or enhance soil nutrients, but others attract valuable bugs or repel pests. Gardeners often swear by these relationships, but many traditional companion lists disagree on friends and foes. The basis is folklore, not science, but principles behind the pairings ring true.

Acknowledging Ancient Examples

Three vegetables planted together for centuries illustrate the fundamentals behind companion planting. Known as the 3 Sisters, the trio still undergirds planting schemes utilized by indigenous peoples now. The annual crops of corn (Zea mays), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and squash (Cucurbita spp.) are planted together in a mutually beneficial bond. Cornstalks offer living poles for beans to climb, so pods do not lie on the ground. Beans in turn fix nitrogen, providing nutrition for themselves and heavy-feeding corn. Squash sits in their toes shading the soil. The leaves help retain moisture and reduce weeds. Coexisting in a small space, the three produce ample, high-quality returns. They produce nutritional balance, too.

Enhancing Plant Nutrition and Growth

Several vegetables, herbs and grains enhance soil nutrients and reduce competition from undesirable weeds. This enhances life for them as well as their vegetable partners. Like beans in Three Sisters plantings, peas (Pisum sativum) and other legumes replenish soil nitrogen. Cover crops grown and tilled into the soil benefit the vegetable companions that follow. Tilled rye (Secale cereale), for instance, adds nitrogen as it decomposes, just as grass clippings do in compost. Rye remnants additionally inhibit seed germination, thereby reducing weeds. Just plant vegetable transplants, not seeds, wherever rye has been. Annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus) roots discharge a biochemical with comparable consequences.

Managing Beneficial Insects and Pests

Companion plants handle insects in several neighborly ways. In a plot called trap cropping, early-rising radishes (Raphanus sativus) draw leaf miners and beetles from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and cole crops that can’t afford above-ground hurt. Annual borage (Borago officinalis) discharges tomato worm moths — and caterpillars that follow — from neighboring tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). The blue blooms also draw beneficial bees that improve pollination and increase tomato yields. Roots of French marigolds (Tagetes patula) release chemicals that suppress root knot nematodes, enemies to tomatoes and other vegetable plants. The marigolds must be increased the season before and then tilled in. Strong-smelling herbs have been touted as companions to attract, repel or confuse insect pests.

Sharing Space and Shade Wisely

Smart companion plans utilize space by planting vegetables side-by-side or in sequence. Carrot (Daucus carota ssp. Sativa) and radish seeds may be sown together in a single row. Quick-growing radishes have been harvest-ready three weeks following planting, right when bananas require thinning. Rather than throwing out carrot seedlings, you are going to be eating radishes. Various heights and growth rates make for good companions, too. Cool-season crops like lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Capitata) require ample early-season sun, but they can’t take heat. Plant them north of a taller, slower-growing companion, like corn, and late-arriving shade goes lettuce season.

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How to Soundproof a Drop Ceiling

Soundproofing a ceiling entails preventing the transmission of sound wave vibrations from the bottom of the ceiling to the ground over it and vice versa. By their very design, drop ceilings are somewhat immune to noise transmission, and also the accession of some technical materials could make them even better at blocking sound.

Acoustical Strategies for Ceilings

Two different evaluations measure the soundproofing capabilities of specific ceiling tile materials. The Noise Reduction Coefficient, which ranges from 0 to 1.0, signals how much sound the substance consumes; an NRC of 0 implies that the tile reflects each of the sound that strikes it back in the room, along with an NRC of 1.0 implies that the tile consumes all of the sound that strikes it. The Ceiling Attentuation Class steps how well the ceiling tile stops the transmission of sound through the tile; the CAC is the more important rating if you are concerned about sound passing through the ceiling into the room above. A tile with a CAC more than 35 is regarded as high performance in terms of its sound-blocking capabilities, and one of ceiling tile materials, mineral fiber tiles have a tendency to have higher CAC evaluations.


For sound to move from 1 side of your ceiling to the other, vibrations need to have the ability to pass through the ceiling. Vibrations move easily when there’s a continuous physical path for them to move through, so one of the fundamental ways to soundproof a ceiling would be to “decouple” one facet of the ceiling in the other, meaning that the ceiling material in the room below isn’t directly connected to the ground of the room above. Because drop ceilings are generally constructed with ceiling tiles suspended in a frame below the ceiling joists and the subfloor of the room above, the design of a drop ceiling mechanically provides built-in decoupling along with the first step toward soundproofing.

Adding Mass

Sound transmission through the ceiling additionally requires that the ceiling material be in a position to vibrate so that it can pass the sound vibration into the space over it. 1 approach to decrease a ceiling tile’s ability to vibrate is to increase its mass so that it is immune to the vibrating energy of the sound that strikes it. Some manufacturers offer sound-reducing goods, either dense plates that sit on top of ceiling tiles or especially designed dense shingles, which increase the mass of the ceiling and also create it especially resistant to shaking.

Absorbing Sound

Even when there’s no direct connection between the drop ceiling and the floor above it, sound that manages to pass through the ceiling tile will nonetheless create the atmosphere in the space between the ceiling and the floor above vibrate, and that shaking can pass sound to the room above. Filling the space with a sound-absorbing material such as fiberglass insulation helps absorb the shaking keep it in passing to the ground above. Insulation won’t, nevertheless, offer as a great deal of soundproofing impact as decoupling or adding mass.

Fixtures and Mechanical Systems

Ductwork, light fixtures, vents and other mechanical systems inside a drop ceiling can function as a pathway to sound throughout the ceiling. Sound-blocking covers over lighting fixtures and air circulation can help prevent sound from travel around and during the fixtures. Sound-damping coatings or paint inside ductwork helps to halt the ducts from vibrating, and acoustical baffles interior ducts can help keep sound from moving throughout the atmosphere inside the duct.

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